Wednesday, September 2, 2020
We, as individuals eventually would feel low, precarious and once in a while would not realize how to precisely portray what we feel session certain things. Regularly it is obscure to us that we are possibly experiencing disposition issue, we become uninformed of ourselves. Disposition issue are depicted by having wide swing of feelings; it ranges from profound despondency to extraordinary fervor, invigoration or happiness and fomentation. There are really two types of mind-set issue; the first is wretchedness and the other is bipolar individually. Lunacy is described by extreme or potentially ridiculous sentiments of energy and rapture, and sorrow includes sentiments of unprecedented pity and downfall. Now and again wherein insanity and misery meets up it is known to be bipolar, in which an individual with this issue would need to feel outrageous energy and profound bitterness at the same time. At the point when misery exists for a very long time it is called dysthymia. It is known to be comparative with significant despondency yet it is a drawn out turmoil, it is gentle and not an intense (Dinsmoor., December, 2002). Side effects of gloom The side effects of gloom can be showed effectively in an individual. These side effects are really different and it very well may be effectively perceived. An individual with a downturn would have the indications of experiencing issues in dozing; they don't get their rest effectively in light of the fact that their brains are eager and because of this they would feel focused or exhausted. It can likewise be the opposite way around; individuals with sorrow can likewise be perceived in the event that they rest exorbitantly. They would likewise free their hunger and would typically free weight or they would do over the top eating and put on weight. It can likewise show in their exercises; individuals with sorrow would free their fascination in their exercises that they do discover pleasurable. Significant wretchedness issue can likewise accompany the loosing the hunger for sex or having sexual issues; it can likewise be joined by cerebral pains. There is likewise the inclination of blame, misery, vulnerability, uselessness and probably the hardest appearance is that they find focusing on specific things excessively troublesome (Association, 2000). Is Katherine experiencing significant burdensome issue? Katherine has been encountering the manifestations occupied with the state of mind issue which is called significant burdensome issue, in which she regularly wishes she were dead, she feels pitiful throughout the day and cries a few times each day, she encounters upset rest and, therefore, she feels exhausted throughout the day, she has positively no enthusiasm for sex or in any event, investing energy with companions, she discovers it amazingly hard to amass at work and simply wouldn't like to associate with individuals. On the off chance that these emotions and wide assortment of unquestionable changes are not initiated by liquor or any beverage that would cause her to feel down, on the off chance that they are brought about by a trouble in her capacities in her work or at home and on the off chance that they were not brought about by extraordinary distress I can offer a deliberate expression that Katherine is truly experiencing significant burdensome issue. What's more, since Katherine has more than five of the side effects appended with significant burdensome issue I can say that she is truly experiencing it. Katherine should be dealt with while she is still in the beginning time of her downturn or while she despite everything can deal with her circumstance. On the off chance that she would not be promptly rewarded she may sooner or later make an endeavor to slaughter herself or end it all. Medicines for significant burdensome issue There are a few medicines for a patient who has a significant burdensome issue. There is psychotherapy or advising for individuals who have gloom issue and there are different meds or medications utilized in rewarding individuals who are tormented with this issue. Quantities of medications are utilized in the fix of significant burdensome issue, these really falls into the class of antidepressants and are additionally arranged into a progressively specific medication or medication. Among the antidepressants are Tricyclic antidepressants or TCAÃ¢â¬â¢s which can really alleviation discouragement by expanding the neurotransmittersÃ¢â¬â¢ focus in the focal sensory system. Another is the Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIÃ¢â¬â¢s goes about as an operator in helping separate a specific synapse which would help manage the temperament of an individual to get steady or typical. The third sort of stimulant is the Lithium carbonate which helps in diminishing the exercises of the nerves in the cerebrum; it changes the compound parity inside a specific nerve in the mind. What's more, the last kind is the serotonin which helps in transmitting messages without interfering with the mind science. Treatment for Katherine On account of Katherine she can be treated by utilizing both psychotherapy and medicine. I would utilize the relational or potentially conduct treatment on her for me to comprehend what set off her downturn. I have to have a foundation of her current connections; her relationship with her family, her relationship with her present sweetheart, her relationship with her companions, her relationship with her officemates and her different connections. Furthermore, in the wake of having investigated her relationship designs I would concentrate on her present practices. I would have the option to comprehend what set off her current practices additionally by her past practices or the things that had really happened to her that may have added to her conduct now. Beside these two psychotherapy a few exercises may help in redirecting KatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings by urging her to attempt to include her self in exercises that would be pleasurable to her, such as conversing with a companion to discharge a portion of her feelings or going out with somebody who is reasonable and decent so she can appreciate and disregard her downturn. In her prescription I would simply give her a stimulant that would suit her since it may bring about additional inconveniences on the off chance that I would give her unseemly medication. Psychotherapy and the utilization of medication would result to a more improved and fulfilling results instead of utilizing treatment or guiding alone as well as just by giving prescriptions. It is extremely difficult to know whether somebody is experiencing a significant gloom since one probably won't notice the side effects immediately. The most significant thing is to allow ones self to know their self more. References Affiliation, A. P. (2000). Indicative and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Dinsmoor., R. S. (Ed.) (December, 2002) Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Storm Group. [Electronic Version] Retrieved March 05, 2008 from http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/normal/norm/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/mood_disorders.jsp Ã Ã Ã
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Open Art in Education My experience preparing includes concentrates on different parts of contemporary craftsmanship and plan. Open craftsmanship as imagined by Freedman, consolidates the interests of different partners including specialists, neighborhood networks, urban organizers, city offices just as both private and open associations (Freedman 6). I am keen on understanding the adequacy of open craftsmanship in instruction, making mindfulness just as social character of networks and uniqueness of towns.Advertising We will compose a custom research paper test on Public Art in Education explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most people group want to have a personality particularly identifying with their regions of home and their symbols, for example, the command hierarchies of Vancouver (Fales Library and Special Collections). Be that as it may, in the contemporary setting, the significant test to workmanship is the danger of potential predisposition by specialists and creators who habi tually utilize capricious methods and half and half techniques to impact judgment (freedman 19). All things considered, there is have to examine the viability of open workmanship and the job of networks in concocting materials that can be put in the fine art to encourage social personality. It is through an away from of the chronicled contextualization of workmanship by networks combined with thorough insightful research that we can precisely comprehend its adequacy in speaking to people in general about different issues of network concern and personality (Fales Library and Special Collections). Along these lines, by accomplishing more research on viability of the data contained in the open workmanship in advancing social character or making mindfulness, suitable choices can be made. Likewise, it will improve the current collection of information in field of craftsmanship and plan. Fales Library and Special Collections. Fales Library and Special Collections: Guide to the Public Art Fund Achive. 2012. Web. Freedman, Doris. Ten Years of Public Art. New York: Public Art Fund, 1982. Print.Advertising Looking for explore paper on craftsmanship? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Greek Hero versus The AngloSaxon Hero Essay Example The Greek Hero versus The AngloSaxon Hero Essay The Greek Hero versus The AngloSaxon Hero Essay The Greek Hero vs.The Anglo-Saxon Hero The legend remains as a prime example of who we ought to be and who we wish to be. In any case, the saint has natural blemishes which we don't wish to endeavor towards.In writing, these defects are not utilized as instances of what we ought to be but instead as instances of what not to be.This is particularly predominant in the Greek legend. While the Greek saint follows his destiny, committing genuine errors and having a genuinely straightforward life, the Anglo-Saxon superhuman attempts, and may succeed, to change his destiny, while managing a genuinely mind boggling life. The Greek saint is solid and relentless while his mind and knowledge are profoundly valued.In the Greek catastrophe, the legend battles to maintain a strategic distance from numerous flaws.Among these imperfections are desire, silliness, willfulness, and hubris-the unreasonable part of pride.He must beat his foreordained destiny an assignment which is impossible.From the sta rt of the story, it is as of now evident that the saint will at last failwith the main way out being death.In Oedipus, the saint is as of now stood up to with a heap of data about his family and gouges his eyes out.At this point, when he attempts to outmaneuver his destiny he has just lost The Anglo-Saxon legend should likewise manage his destiny however attempts, and typically succeeds, to change it.While the Greek legend fights his destiny with his inordinate pride and insight, the Anglo-Saxon legend attempts to take out his fate by force.The Anglo-Saxon legend is viewed as a savage of sorts because of his occasionally untrustworthy and indecent perspectives and courses of action.At the end, the Anglo-Saxon prevails with regards to adjusting his destiny however. The Greek legend is typical to such an extent, that the peruser can identify with him.He is generally a typical individual with no phenomenal life. His story appears to be acceptable, even conceivable.
Thursday, June 4, 2020
Poems from diferent cultures During the poem limbo (by Edward kamau Brathwaite) is more of a cultural poem than a tradition. As the poem discribes a stressful and upseting time black people lived through. The way they were moved from Africa to America to the United Kingdom. In between the rows three to six, it repeats the same word again, this in my opinion indicates the ship swayimg in the sea. The way the humans underneath the half roted lank of wooden felt. This shows that they were kept under complete silence. Tied with metal chains, not a movement was made. But as for the poem island man (by Grace Nichols) is a poem that can be viewed as a cultural poem as well as tradition. The poem describes the way a man lives on a island known as London but left in peace and quiet. This can be explained culture as it shows the way the man is able to live through what is known as a busy city. What to do and how to deal with a situation. Also in the last stanza the poet is giving a simple m apping of information. The repeated words gives an impression of the persons fellings. The language of each poem is different, limbo indicates that it was writen in the time of when this occurred, it even may have been writen by someone who lived these terrors. But the passion of the poet trying to send the message across of how life was down underneath the sky, underneath footsteps and underneath planks of wood. As for the poem island man indicates that it was writen, also in the times of when life was difficult as you do not find people who live peacefully in the island, also the relaxed life that he lives. Day by day reapeated. Underneath sky, breathing in the freash air. In both poems the the poet is from race and are writing about there country or were they come from. Limbo you are able to tell the the poet is black and is explaining the life that some black people had to go through. The poem island man you are able to tell that they are from london trying to explain were they are from and how standard life is in thr rich city known as London.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
The business strategy of Shangri-La reflects that more concern is being put on the generation of values through unique ways. Like its competitors, management and contentment of a wide range of customers are a big challenge for Shangri-La. this challenge is faced through the practice of differentiated hospitability. That is to say, Shangri-La adopts different approaches by heightening levels of hospitality and providing the customers with the best services and super luxurious atmospheres. In spite of operating over such diverse geographical locations, Shangri-La has never failed to focus on business investments, especially in Asia- Pacific region. All these have contributed largely to the building of Shangri-La s brand image and have also won its recognition all around the world. In past few years, Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts have won numerous awards and recognitions in the form of Best Business Hotel Chain in the Asia Pacific by Business Traveller (U. K. and Germany) and Best Ho tel Chain by Chinese Hurun Report (China). Thus, Shangri-La gains competitive advantage on an international level by offering outstanding customer service. Some of the core organizational policies aim at providing respect, courtesy, warmth, cordiality, sincerity, geniality and friendliness. We will write a custom essay sample on Shangri-La's International Business Strategy or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now These are indispensable in the hospitality industry and each and every hotel and resort of Shangri-La makes sure that it is met. The staffs and management of Shangri-La exhibit cultures and traditions of respective nations or regions. Guests, too, are treated accordingly, as expectations and behavioral patterns of people widely vary across the globe. Extensive training and development programs have been a part of Shangri-La for a long time. This is divided into three sections. Other than Shangri-La Care, there is Delighting Customers and Recover. As this is immensely important for the hotel industry, Shangri-La allocates separate funds within its budget for training and developmental programs.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction Thus far in graduate school, I have found three theories to be the most influential for me in developing my very own personal counseling style. These three theories are: Rogerian s person-centered approach, Erikson s theory of Development, and Behavior Therapy. At this point in time, I do not have an approach or theory that I favor over the other two. I believe all three of these will be equally successful in helping me provide competent and successful counseling in the future. I chose these three theories because I believe they will all be very helpful when working with children. I am concentrating on mental health counseling for children and adolescents so these three will all come in handy. Children communicate differently than adults so it is important to use approaches with children that will help them with their communicating styles so I can be more effective as a counselor with these age group. Children are not for everyone especially the younger ones becau se they can be more difficult, but I believe with the few years I have put into Elementary Education, I can also use that knowledge to communicate and learn from this group. They cannot just talk to you about their problems like most adults can so instead of sitting them on a couch and waiting for them to be ready to open up, I believe it is important to look at their play. A child s play will tell counselors everything they need to know about this client. We can learn about any abuse,Show MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Development, And Behavior Therapy2773 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pageshave found three theories to be the most influential for me in developing my very own personal counseling style. These three theories are: Rogerian s person-centered approach, Erikson s theory of Development, and Behavior Therapy. At this point in time, I do not have an approach or theory that I favor over the other two. I believe all three of these will be equally successful in helping me provide competent and successful counseling in the future. I chose these three theories because I believeRead MoreIs Relational Frame Theory?1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesso many theories on how we should live our lives, battle disorders of all kinds, and how to fix or solve those disorders. The specific theory that we will be taking a look on is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy or more commonly known in the psychology world as ACT. Like most other theories that take from other theories in its format, this one is no different. Steven C. Hayes is considered and recognized by the psychological community to be the founder of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. StevenRead MoreWhat Is Clinical Psychology?1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis Clinical Psychology? It is the branch of psychology that emphasizes on the assessment and treatment of mental illness, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric problems of a person. 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Additionally, It will at tempt to highlight the relationship that exists between the theory andRead MoreAlbert Banduras Theory Of Social Learning Theory1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBandura is considered the developer of social learning theory, which is also known as social cognitive theory (Corey, 2013; Feist et al., 2013; Thoma et al., 2015). BaduraÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, while based upon the principles of behaviorism, departs from the traditional behavioral model and leaves room for the exploration of unobservable mental states and their influence on behavior (Corey, 2013; Thoma et al., 2015). Social Cognitive theory bases its theory of learning on two types of learning processes: observationalRead MoreThe Support Influence On Development Of Insufficient Parental Care1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages History and Development It was in 1951 that John Bowlby began to write about the opposing influence on development of insufficient parental care and called attention to the acute distress of young children separated from their primary caregivers. (Barth, 2005) The quality of early attachment relationships is correlated with future personality and brain development. Ã¢â¬Å"The Attachment Theory is a foundation theory, developed by Bowlby. It focusses on the form, quality, and strengths of human attachmentsRead MoreHumanistic Psychology Essay1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe areas of client-centered therapy, education of student-centered learning, organizations, and other group settings. Even though psychoanalysis and behaviorism have made major contributions to psychology, it has influenced the understanding and practices of the humanistic movement, specifically with the therapies for the different mental disorders. Psychoanalysis understands the unconscious behavior, behaviorism focuses on the conditioning pr ocess that produces behavior. Humanistic psychology focusesRead MoreMy Personal Theory Of Counseling Essay996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBeliefs are components that play a role in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self-identity. The establishment of these components shape human nature, behavior, and the development of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose. The basis of these fundamentals has contributed to my desire to become a counselor. This paper will discuss my views of human nature, factors of behavior changes, goals of therapy, the roles of a therapist, and the counseling approaches that I chose to incorporate in a practice. The understanding of human natureRead MoreFamily and Multigenerational Family Therapy860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFamily Therapy and Multigenerational Family Therapy Family Therapy and Multigenerational Family Therapy The idea of working with a family as a unit versus individuals was innovative and throughout the years became a significant enhancement to family system therapy. In 1960 Structural Family Therapy was founded and developed by Salvador Minuchin whose main focus was based on the interactional patterns and sequences within the family. He was able to alter the behaviors of the family alleviating
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The concept of the prison has existed for more than two thousand years. It probably goes back as far in time as practice of cannibalism, where victims had to wait for their turn in contributing to the chief course in the menu of their captors. Examples of prisons can even be found in the Old Testament when Joseph was incarcerated in Egypt. It was not until the 19th century that a clear shift occurred from corporal punishment to imprisonment. As societies prospered and the industrial revolution began, the formal prison system, as we know it today, developed. Throughout most of the world, the correctional system is administered by the state, and it is considered a key function that the government must fulfill: protect its citizens by guaranteeing the state of law while enforcing the judicial system. More than two decades ago, the United Sates and Great Britain began experimenting with privatization of their prison systems, outsourcing the management to private enterprises. Like most privatization issues, this topic has many supporters from the liberal economic philosophy, as well as many detractors that argue against profit seeking enterprises. The discussion promotes themes such as the ethical dilemma of the private sector Ã¢â¬Å"administering punishmentÃ¢â¬ , selecting the correct metrics used to evaluate the performance of private sector versus public sector, disputes of what are Ã¢â¬Å"just and fairÃ¢â¬ services that the inmates are entitled to, among others. In the following essay we aim to bring these topics into light and try to analyze the pros and cons of privatizing the prison system. Private prisons are one of the fastest growing industries in the security and protection industry. Up until 2003, there were an estimated of 102 private prisons in the U. S. holding more than 100,000 inmates. As of 2008, there were 128,524 inmates held in private prisons, representing 8% of the total 1,610,466 inmates held in all state and federal prisons. Many researchers and academics have argued that although the United States has only 5% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population, it holds 25% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s prison population. Is this trend directly correlated to the use and promotion of a private prison system? The U. S. as half a million more inmates than China, even though ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s population is five times the size of the US population. Some reasons of China having a lower imprisonment rate can be linked to a lack of reliable statistics (government controlled information), Chinese law/ judicial system are very different to that of the United States and the investment in infrastructure the US has to detect crime. According to the California Prison Focus, Ã¢â¬Å"no other society in human history has imprisoned so many of its own citizens. Ã¢â¬ What incentive does the government have to privatize prisons, or encourage public/private alliances? In a time of fiscal constraints, governments have used public/private partnerships in order to provide services that had been formerly delivered by the state. However, although private participation may have been seen as a solution to avoid public failures (i. e. the privatization if highways, garbage /waste management collection, telephone/cellular lines), results can vary according to the sector raising questions concerned with the efficiency of the alliance. The Reagan administration exploited the momentum for privatization and deregulation, giving rise to Corrections Corporation of America (CCA). Among the incentives the government has for prison privatization is their desperate need to cut budget deficits. For privatization to be economically feasible, the cost/benefit analysis must be positive and provide savings to the government. Likewise, the outright inflow of cash coming in from selling a prison can be very important for local state administrations. According to the disclosure provided by the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, the reason of why they recently sold one of their prisons for $75 million is to Ã¢â¬Å"improve staff and inmate safety, reduce daily operating expenses and to reduce the states long-term budgetÃ¢â¬ Although the prison privatization topic has generated many controversies and has important lobbying groups behind it, there are few reliable studies comparing privately and publicly operated facilities. Segal and Moore (2002) identified about 23 U. S. cost comparison studies and fewer quality studies. Many of those studies were of questionable value because they did not comply with specific characteristics of meta-analysis (did not have explicit comparison of private and public facilities, the study was based on citations of other studies, few recognizable databases, among others). The most recent review, a meta-analysis by Lundahl et. al. (2009) only identified 12 studies of cost and quality meeting their criteria for sound methodologyÃ¢â¬ . According to Alex Tabarrok, privately managed facilities can have cost savings of 15-25% on prison edification and 15% on administrative expenses. Likewise, private prisons generate competition and exert pressure towards public prisons. They encourage public prisons to also innovate and lower costs. Other studies (Lundahl et al. 2009, page 392) argue, Ã¢â¬Å"prison privatization provides neither a clear advantage nor disadvantage compared with publicly managed prisons. Ã¢â¬ The economic nature of private corporations is to be profit-seeking agents whose sole focus is to maximize shareholder value. This is a fair reason and a reason that will always exist. Detractors of privatization and free market systems, argue that the only way to achieve profit maximization is at the expense of third parties (zero sum game) and stress that corporations do this by lowering service quality and reducing personnel. In the example of prison privatization, following this Ã¢â¬Å"linearÃ¢â¬ thinking of profit maximization equaling low quality service and thus suboptimal conditions for inmates, generates arguments relating to negative externalities. Corporations such as CCA argue that they can systematically reduce operating expenses while minimizing externalities and social costs. According to the Ohio State Department of Rehabilitation and Corrections, the sale and outsourcing of the Lake Erie prison will cost the state 6% annually less to run amounting to a savings of $3 million per year. CCA has gone on the record saying that it will keep over 90% of the existing jobs in Ohio. As mentioned earlier, a lack of reliable information challenging these assertions of measurable cost reductions is a major concern to elected officials. On February 14th the state of Florida, also desperate to cut its budget deficit, held a controversial vote to privatize state prisons. Ultimately, Republicans rejected the bill in a tight 21-19 vote, dividing the caucus. Those voting against privatization sighted a lack of transparency on the forecasted budget savings. While we believe that many government services would be better of if privatized, the incentives and processes regarding prison privatization must be explored further. Actual evidence demonstrates that the actual privatization process has generated perverse incentives and powerful forces in Washington advocating for special favors. The end result has been a perverse mercantilism. This can clearly be seen by a report investigating the top five interest groups lobbying to keep marijuana illegal. Private prison corporations make millions by incarcerating people who have been imprisoned for drug crimes, including marijuana. Likewise, CCA has sent letters to more than 48 states asking for a Ã¢â¬Å"20 year management contract plus an assurance that the prison would remain at least 90% fullÃ¢â¬ and have advocated for direct incarceration of illegal immigrants. To reduce the negative externalities and obscure process that surround prison privatization, serious steps must be taken in order to align incentives. Why are prisons being paid on the quantity if inmates instead of being paid on how many inmates they can re-incorporate to society? The best example can be found in the Delancey Street Foundation and as stated in their web site, Ã¢â¬Å"we take applications from people who have hit bottom, from prison, jail or walk-ins. Residents who have been at Delancey Street awhile interview all applicants. The minimum stay is 2 years; the average stay is 4 years. We have 3 rules: no drugs or alcohol, no physical violence, and no threats of violence. The goal is to learn to lead a productive crime-free, drug-free life of purpose and integrity. Everyone learns a marketable skill (the goal is 3 skills), and earns at least a high school equivalency degree. Advanced education is available. Ã¢â¬ Moreover specific KPIÃ¢â¬â¢s must be developed to Ã¢â¬Å"rateÃ¢â¬ the performance of private prisons accompanied with in depth studies regarding state savings by not incurring in prison management. Certain benchmarks must be achieved by every concessionary in aspects concerning security levels, staff training, among others. These standards can be revised by benchmarking against other private prisons operated in other countries. Additionally, many people argue in favor of prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s living standards and rights concluding that privatization will worsen them. Why is it that society is overprotecting individuals, which have committed a serious crime, and therefore deserve Ã¢â¬Å"high standardsÃ¢â¬ while in prison? On average, an inmate costs $50,000 per year. The majority of these criminals donÃ¢â¬â¢t even make that amount of money a year; hence they might be better off living in prison. For those advocates that in general think public prisons are much more favorable than private prison, they should take a look at our exhibit of the public prison system in El Salvador and Honduras (please see exhibit). Inmates are human beings and should be treated with dignity and have access to basic necessities (food, water, shelter) and should not be deprived of their right if they are respecting their fellow constituents. Most importantly, they should be given the necessary conditions to re-evaluate their behavior and to experience what it means of not having their liberty. We advocate that proper rehabilitation of prisoners tends to lower overall social costs, as convicts will be less likely to repeat offense. While it logically makes sense for a state to rehabilitate prisoners to the best of their ability, the opposite can be true in the privatized system if the incentives are not properly aligned. Firstly, proper counseling and rehabilitation costs money, and corporations whose sole incentive is to maximize shareholder value vehemently oppose Ã¢â¬Å"unnecessaryÃ¢â¬ increases in operating costs. The second reason is the perverse irony behind privatized prisons: they need customers. In the case of the sale of the Lake Erie prison in Ohio, the state had agreed to provide CCA a guaranteed minimum occupation rate of 90%. Lastly, if investors are not incentivized accordingly, they will tend to have a narrower view on the global problem, excluding the cost of negative externalities (without proper rehabilitation, inmates will repeat offence, triggering additional cost for public and private entities. ) In the current political and austere environment, few politicians would risk their fate by opening up the discourse that crime prevention and more lenient laws are a solution to lower costs. Having a Ã¢â¬Å"toughÃ¢â¬ approach on prevention can be even better than being stern with crime. New York cut its incarceration rate by 15% between 1997 and 2007, while reducing violent crime by 40%. By evaluating the behavior and development of other privatized services (i. e education, transportation, highways, garbage removal, among others) prison privatization can take their operating framework as a general base. Communities and consumers evaluate the services of educational institutions, garbage removal companies and healthcare facilities. Based on the consumer preference, the most efficient companies remain in operation. Why not do the same for private prisons? Let the state, independent parties (associations) and the final customers (inmates) evaluate the performance of the privatized system. For this to function well, exploitation of contracts cannot simply be given for 20 years without a Ã¢â¬Å"call optionÃ¢â¬ . Private firms interested in providing services must be fully aware that if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t comply with the required standards and rank low in evaluation criteria can have their contracted removed with sufficient penalties for the transition period. As discussed earlier, an important percentage of the compensation given by the state to the private concessionary should be linked to performance. One of the key metrics that must be included is the rehabilitation and re-insertion rate of inmates to society (logically this inmates must not have been sentenced for Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ in prison and must not have committed high grade crimes). This will generate an incentive for private companies to make strategic alliances (private prisons with rehabilitation centers, educational institutes, voluntary programs, firms like Delancey Street among others). Independent institutions (universities, associations and think tanks) should constantly monitor and evaluate the cost-benefit of having privatized prisons in certain areas. There can be situations were government run prisons will be economically more viable than private ones. As in any topic involving the co-participation of government and private firms, public choice issues arise and must be carefully considered. Further extending the reasoning by considering different Social investing/entrepreneurial initiatives in the world, creative solutions focusing on social impact could be applied to the private prison system. Considering that most of the inmates are idle, designing social impact programs to foster inclusion and additional revenue streams for government administered prisons can be beneficial. This could be favorable for multiple stakeholders in the prison sector: public authorities reduce costs by having additional income, crime rate reduction with higher prevention (protagonists for preventive message are the prisoners themselves) and a better rehabilitation in society (prisoners learn skills, valuesÃ¢â¬ ¦). On the other hand, private investors are enticed to follow Ã¢â¬Å"social measuringÃ¢â¬ inside prisons (this social actions would be audited and closely followed). Finally the prisoners are dissuaded to commit new offences. As an example, the company Heavy Eco operating in the United Kingdom believes that the reason why people go to jail lies in their childhood. In order to help the situation, as well as paying the convicts for their work, Heavy Eco empowers prisoners to create organic T-Shirts and bags from recycled materials (50% of the profits go to help homeless and orphanage children) . In Philippines, another initiative grew also around fashion made by prisoners. It is proven that the severity (harshness) of the punishment is not directly correlated with crime reduction. Law and penalty enforcement, on the other hand, does have a direct impact in crime reduction. With this in mind, it is not how Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"severeÃ¢â¬ the conditions are inside a prison but instead that all of the inmates and future convicts know that if an offense is committed the law will be enforced upon them. Societies donÃ¢â¬â¢t prosper with high imprisonment rates, they proposer under good rule of law and productive citizens.